Friday, May 22, 2020
INTRODUCTION This report presents an interview with a bilingual called H.D . H.D. is a daughter of a Turkish immigrant family who lived in Australia for 12 years .H.D. gives examples from her personal life about how she became bilingual background , the challenges of second language acquisition , benefits and the role of languages in her life. H.D was asked the following questions : (a) Could you please explain how you became bilingual? (b) Could you describe the bilingual environment you grew up in? (c) Which language do you feel more confident in speaking? And why? (d) How did you develop your reading and writing skills in both languages and what kind of challenges did you face during the learning process? (e) How did you feel asÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦H.D.Ã¢â¬â¢s answer was interesting: Ã¢â¬Å"I think I just picked up both languages simultaneously and it was always pretty natural for me to speak two languages. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t remember getting confused however my parents sometimes did some tricks ,like pretending not to understand English , which forced me to use Turkish. We were regularly in contact with other Turkish families living in Melbourne . I also attended Turkish classes on the weekends for a couple of years. These usually strengthened my abilities in Turkish language, and also my familiarization in Turkish culture and values.Ã¢â¬ This situation also supports the statement of Lyon(1996) that children become bilingual across the world in many communities and this can play a major part in the families into which they are born, and in their later lives at school. Bilingualism occurs within complex, multi-layered context, but from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view the family is where it all begins. H.D adds: Ã¢â¬Å" I learned to read and write in English first, mainly at school, but later I attended Saturday school for Turkish lessons. This did cause a little confusion for me at first when I started to read and write in Turkish because it is spelt very phonetically. It has extra alphabetic letters such Ã¢â¬Å" Ã §, ÃÅ¸ , Ã ±, Ã ¶, Ã Å¸ , Ã ¼Ã¢â¬ and does not have Ã¢â¬Å"wÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"xÃ¢â¬ sounds. I also couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand why the verbs were at the end of the sentence instead of in the middle like in English. This problem was solved with myShow MoreRelatedBilingual Education Is Important For Students944 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFor this investigative assignment, I interviewed three of my closest friends about their perspectives on bilingual education in the United States. One of my friends, who I will call Ã¢â¬Å"A,Ã¢â¬ said that bilingual education is important for students because it helps them broaden their perspectives on the world. Students are e xposed to learn different cultures and respect them, promoting multiculturalism in our country. Ã¢â¬Å"AÃ¢â¬ said that if students were only exposed to English-only classroom setting, they wouldRead MoreThe Goal Of Bilingual Education Programs1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMichelle Barajas August 31, 2017 Education Code Webquest 1. What is the goal of bilingual education programs? Of ESL programs? How are the goals different/alike? (89.1201) The goals of a bilingual education programs are to help English language learners learn in their native language to develop literacy skill and academic knowledge through listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills that will help them learn the English language and later transition to an all English instruction classroom.Read MoreThe Development Of Bilingual Literacy Practices771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresearchers performed a series of observations and video recording over a period of one year. This observations took place during various community events. The discussion of the findings develops through a framework to understand the development of bilingual literacy practices in a minoritized context. The authors found a blend of traditional Aboriginal practices with contemporary teaching methodology. Elders and parents re-appropriate their own ancestral language, and reshaped the language classroomRead MoreEssay on The Roots of Bilingual Education1129 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Ro ots of Bilingual Education A historical perspective on bilingual education is written in the article Bilingual Education Traces its U.S. Roots to the Colonial Era in the magazine Education Week. The author begins by writing, Bilingual education has been part of the immigrant experience in America since the Colonial periods, when native-language schooling was the rule rather than the exception (21). When immigrant groups settled in the United States they taught their childrenRead MoreShould English For Replace Bilingual Education1483 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesclassified as being limited in English proficiency. Most of these students came from homes where only Spanish was spoken by their parents and other family members living with them. I have chosen to do my research on Ã¢â¬Å"Should English immersions replace bilingual educationÃ¢â¬ . This topic interested me as soon as I saw it because it is something I can relate to. When I was a child, my parents brought my brother and I to the United States. We live d right across the border from Eagle Pass, Texas which is whereRead MoreThe Benefits of Being Bilingual689 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesA new graduate from college walks into a job interview with a business degree. His potential as a worker is evidently high and the people sitting across the desk from him know that he is a highly intelligent individual, maybe even the smartest one they will interview today. This young graduate could do wonders for their business with his youth and energy. He is asked what seems like a million questions when finally he only has to answer one more question. They want to know if he can speak any secondRead MoreRaising Bilingual Children : How Do Bilingual Baby s Brains Work And What Are Parents?1585 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Raising Bilingual Children Student Name UTSA IEP Writing 5 For parents, their babyÃ¢â¬â¢s development is very important. Babies are communicating with their parents and other people in their own way. When they want something some might point to the subject, some might scream or cry. Smiling is the more common way to show happiness. Obviously crying is an indication of problems such as hunger, thirst, or sleep. However, when they grow up they start to speak. EspeciallyRead MoreCafs Irp975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn my opinion bilingualism plays a major role in the educational development of children. This is because research has shown that children who are fluent in their home language are more successful in learning a second language. Furthermore, being bilingual offers greater sensitivity to language, more flexibility in thinking and better ear for listening. It also improves a childÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding for the native language. Moreover, knowledge of other languages increases a career of opportunities offeringRead MoreLanguage Barrier: Bilingual Education vs. English Immersion Essay examples1246 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBilingual teaching in American schools is it good, bad, or both? Who is right in this national debate? Both sides make some impressive arguments for their side of the issue. Even the government has mixed issues when it comes to bilingual teaching. However, the government has shown their views in their budgets and their law making. Another question comes up with the bilingual teaching is should America make English its official language? Some say there is no need for it, and yet 22 states asRead MoreDual Immersion Program : A Innovative Bilingual Education Program1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDual Immersion Program is one of the innovative bilingual education program, meaning what develops the high levels of academic proficiency in the students on both learning languages (Thomas and Collier 2002; Lindholm-Leary 2001)4. Other common used terminology used for one of the variations of this type of prog ram model is Dual Language Program, Dual Language Immersion, Two-way Dual Language, One-way Dual Language, Partial Immersion, Full Immersion, etc. The instructional model of DIP promotes the
Sunday, May 10, 2020
To set the tone for the following prose introduction, IÃ¢â¬â¢d like to draw a comparison: as a short fiction writer and ex-violin player, notes on sheet music and words on blank paper are similar. Our creativity often urges us to add that absurd simile, or abrupt forte. Hence, a writer or composerÃ¢â¬â¢s best work is put forth when she allows her ideas flow unrestrained, unfiltered. Forcing rhyme or meter potentially makes a poetÃ¢â¬â¢s work insincere and awkward. Therefore, the poems below may give the impression of being Ã¢â¬Å"manufacturedÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"carefully constructed according to a formula.Ã¢â¬ That impression is not wrong: if something sounds forced, it probably was deliberately put in to imitate another poetÃ¢â¬â¢s stylistic choices, and if anything sounds natural, it was added in because my Ã¢â¬Å"gutÃ¢â¬ felt that was the correct choice. In other words, the following annotations are all afterthoughts of sorts. Before picking apart the main stylistic fe atures in Ã¢â¬Å"Goodwill,Ã¢â¬ I will provide some Ã¢â¬Å"intellectualÃ¢â¬ context about the poem that may not be supplied in the diction. Ã¢â¬Å"GoodwillÃ¢â¬ is a news and persona poem that is based on a South Korean news article released on November 6, 2016 (hence the epigraph) about the following incident: an elderly man purchased a puppy and kitten, and when he tried bringing them into a motel and was denied entry because of his new pets, he dropped both animals from his hands. As the poem hints, the kitten died, and the puppy was grievously injured, and the man was releasedShow MoreRelatedThe Business Rivalry Of The Cinema Industry921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmade profitable returns out of their investments. The cinema sector was protected because a movie was first premiered in a theatre before people could watch it in electronic media platforms in their houses. However, recent changes in the society have made it possible for individuals to access even new movies without visiting theatre halls. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to carry out an industry analysis and find out how the economics of liberalization and changes in technology have made the cinemaRead MoreBlockbuster Case Analysis Essay1003 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBlockbuster Case Analysis I. Strategic Profile and Case Analysis Purpose: The Blockbuster firm is a leading provider of rental movie and game entertainment with approximately 8,000 stores. The company operates in the US, Europe, Latin America, Australia, Canada, Mexico and Asia. Blockbuster is headquartered in Dallas, Texas and employs 58,561 people; this figure includes full-time, part-time and seasonal employees. The company recorded revenues of $5,287.9 million during the financial yearRead MoreBlockbuster vs. Netflix1508 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSUBJECT: Analysis of Blockbuster and Netflix INTRODUCTION Blockbuster and Netflix both operate within the same competitive market, but take a vastly different approach in terms of operations. In this memo, I will analyze the competitive environment the two firms operate in, the vertical income and balance sheets of each firm, and the important ratios that give insight into the financial health of both companies. BLOCKBUSTER Blockbuster Inc. provides in-home rental and retail movie and gameRead More KantÃ¢â¬â¢s Practical Imperative in the Film The Insider Essay719 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesprotagonist of Ã¢â¬Å"The InsiderÃ¢â¬ portrays himself to be a conflicted individual as he makes decisions throughout the movie. Against an undetermined future, he ruminates about what he knows is right for example, receiving threats, the phone ringing at odd hours. He makes most of his decisions by weighing the cost and benefits, which may be referred to as KantÃ¢â¬â¢s principle the Ã¢â¬Å"end justifies the meansÃ¢â¬ .Analysis of Wigand if he had to disclose the information results in benefits for the good of the public, secondRead MoreSwot Analysis of Netflix1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSWOT analysis for Netflix: Strengths: 1. Proprietary technology. Netflix has proprietary technology system to stream TV shows and movies and also including processing delivery and return DVDs. This specific system makes the business in Netflix more efficiency. 2. Goodwill and brand value. Netflix is a company with reputation. It has 15 years experiences and has a good deal of loyal consumers. 3. Competitive price. The service is in expensive in Netflix. It just cost 8 dollar perRead MoreSwot Analysis of Netflix1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSWOT analysis for Netflix: Strengths: 1. Proprietary technology. Netflix has proprietary technology system to stream TV shows and movies and also including processing delivery and return DVDs. This specific system makes the business in Netflix more efficiency. 2. Goodwill and brand value. Netflix is a company with reputation. It has 15 years experiences and has a good deal of loyal consumers. 3. Competitive price. The service is in expensive in Netflix. It just cost 8 dollar perRead MoreThe Body Language Of The Speaker, And The Emotion930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages A good speech normally affects us by the words, the body language of the speaker, and the emotion we feel by speaker s different tone. On September 20, 2014. Emma Watson, a famous movie actress known for her movie series, Harry Potter, launched a speech at the United Nations called,HeForShe. In her speech she was using audience appeals, repetition, diction to argue the reality of the gender inequality that still existed and call for actions taken by men and women together. TheRead MoreBlockbuster Netflix Case Analysis1533 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY MEMORANDUM SUBJECT: Blockbuster/Netflix Case Analysis Introduction In this memorandum, I will analyze the competitive environment that Blockbuster and Netflix faced, state the key income statement and balance sheet accounts for each firm and use ratios (including DuPont model) to draw comparisons between the two firms in 2008. Competitive Environment Blockbuster is an American-based chain of VHS, DVD, Blu-Ray, and videoRead MoreThis Paper Will Discuss The Nfl Concussion Scandal And1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis paper will discuss the NFL Concussion Scandal and analysis of the ethical issues regarding the scandal. American football has always been defined as a contact sport. Individuals know before playing the sport that they take on the risk of physical harm to their bodies. However, concussions and other repetitive head-blows could end in death and permanent damage. Also, American football has been shown to be the cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy(CTE), which can lead to suicidal thoughtsRead MoreThe History Of Neighborhood In San Francisco1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswant to start up new businesses. Although, in the long run this will be useful for ExcelsiorÃ ´s economy in the next couple of years where multiple new businesses will start up. For example, in the article it stated a historic movie palace opened in 1921 wa s converted into a Goodwill store. Tesla Gave Some Florida Drivers Some Battery Juice After Hurricane One of the most innovative corporations in the world, Tesla gave Florida residents that were in danger of Hurricane Irma a generous surprise. To further
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A visit to a zoo is one of the most enthralling and exciting things. It is an interesting way to let the children see animals, which they cannot see otherwise. A visit to a zoo is an entertaining activity not just for children but also for adults as it increases their knowledge and makes them wonder at the marvellous of nature. We will write a custom essay sample on A Visit to the Zoo or any similar topic only for you Order Now During our educational tour to Delhi, last month, we were also taken to the zoo as it is near the old fort. The zoo is one of the largest in the country spread in a vast area of 35 acres, approximately. The zoo is thickly vegetated with a large variety of birds and animals. We firstly visited the BirdsÃ¢â¬â¢ section, which was a colourful treat to our eyes. This section was echoing with the chirping of the birds all over. The multi-coloured birds were twittering all over, we saw the graceful pelicans, lovely kingfishers and the cranes, the dignified swans, and peacocks, peahens, sparrows of different kinds, nightingales, Siberian cranes, storks, ducks, the wild parrot and a wide variety of mountain birds. Next we went to the AnimalsÃ¢â¬â¢ section. It was amazing to see the tigers, lions, cheetahs, leopards, bears, rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, zebras, antelopes, stages, horses, and rabbits etc. the Deer, Antelopes and Stages were very active and alert. The Hares and Rabbits were naughty while the tall giraffes and twin-coloured zebras were busy eating or grazing. The rhinoceros and Hippopotamuses seemed to be very lazy. But they were interesting to look at with their huge and bulky bodies. We were hypnotized by their massive size. The Tiger, Leopards, Cheetahs, Bears were huge and fearful to look at. The sharp teeth and claws were very frightening. The king of the jungle was awesome in his den. His loud roar echoed and reverberated up to the skies. We all could watch him for hours together. The best attraction, however, were the Monkeys, Chimpanzees, Baboons, Gorillas etc. They were so amusing with their pranks and swinging tails. We kept on watching them for a long time. Some other spectators gave them groundnuts to eat. We did not want to go ahead and leave the MonkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s section, as we could never tire from watching them eat and swing from one branch to another. But, alas, we had to move on. Lastly, we went to the ReptilesÃ¢â¬â¢ section. We saw the Crocodiles lying in the sun and a wide variety of Snakes, Cripers and Cobras. Some of them hissed when we knocked at their glass frames and others were coiled up and did not bother to see us. We also saw many kinds of fishes, but they were not many in number. We visited the entire zoo and it took us a few hours to enjoy the vast expanse. Walking around made us feel hungry, so we decided to eat as soon as were to. It took us another half an hour to get out of the zoo. We enjoyed the lunch and proceed to see other places. The visit was an extremely knowledgeable one. We saw so many birds and animals in real. Until now we had seen them only in books or on television. But when saw them in real for the first time; we realized how wonderful and marvelous, the nature is. We wondered at the vast variety it presents us with and how we city people do not have much time and opportunity to see such marvels. We really enjoyed our visit to the zoo and made up our minds to visit many more such places. When we returned, we also prepared a file, posted pictures of animals on internet which we saw in the zoo and whose snaps we had taken and wrote the information about the animals As a kid, I always loved going to the zoo. I was fortunate in that when I was little, my family lived within walking distance of the municipal zoo. I was also fortunate in that at the time, it was one of the very best in the USA. These days, IÃ¢â¬â¢m an expatriate living with my wife on a subtropical paradise whose main civilian industry is the tourist trade. Okinawa has perhaps one of the best aquariums in the whole world in the Churaumi Aquarium. In addition to the aquarium, they have several privately owned zoos that have been built for the benefit of the tourism trade as well as a host of petting zoos scattered across the island. They also have one municipally owned and operated zoo that due to a host of reasons has seen better days. The childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s zoo in centrally located Okinawa City is a huge place. In addition to the municipal zoo, the park hosts a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interactive learning facility, a huge park with a manmade lake, paddle boats, and an amphitheatre capable of hosting concerts and shows. Once upon a time, it even had its very own amusement park complete with a Ferris wheel, rollercoaster and a host of thrill rides. Every year on ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Day, a national holiday in Japan, they open the doors to the public free of charge. Additionally, every Christmas season, the whole park is decorated appropriate to the holiday season and opened in the evening hours so everyone can enjoy the holiday lights. During these two times of the year, the park actually lives up to its potential. The rest of the year, the park and zoo are dismally disappointing. Attendance is extremely poor on the weekends and practically non-existent during the rest of the week. During the school summer vacation season, when attendance should be up, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not. In part this is due to the oppressive heat and humidity here. Tourists and their families are more often than not, prefer to stay at a luxury resort and enjoy the first class amenities offered right at the hotel. Local people head for the air conditioned comfort of the shopping malls. Even opening the zoo during the evening hours when the temperatures are more agreeable hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t helped. The biggest problem with the Okinawa zoo is that a large part of the facility is rather old and as such, inadequate. Lions and tigers live in tiny cages and are almost invisible. Although the whole park is more than adequate in size, only a tiny portion of the facility is utilized by the zoo. It would be nice to see a greater effort to see the facility updated and expanded with new and spacious facilities for some of the more exotic animals such as those already mentioned. Progress here is slow. On the plus side, the zoo now boasts a facility for some new Asian elephants and the giraffe area is huge. There is a new reptile house for all the snakes and an air conditioned elevator that makes the zoo, situated on a steep hillside, more accessible for the elderly as well as those who, due to no fault of their own, were previously unable to enjoy the facility. Another plus side is a dedicated staff. We found everyone we encountered on our trip ready, willing and able to assist us. One young lady keeping the animals was especially accommodating. While busy with her tasks, she noticed our cameras and the problems we were having taking pictures through the mesh screens in the bird and bat house. As we were leaving, she ran after us with a Ryukyu Flying Fox that she raised from a baby. She brought it out of the cages and allowed us to photograph it in a more natural setting. The really great thing about the Okinawa ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Zoo is that it is so affordable. Admission for adults is only 500 Yen, about $4. 50 U. S. Children can enter the park for 300 Yen with infants and toddlers being free of charge. For the price of one take out pizza, a family of four can enjoy several hours of quality time together so itÃ¢â¬â¢s well worth the price of admission In a crowded city such as Manhattan, it was no wonder that a man like Jerry felt lonely. He was without a friend, a mother and father, and the typical Ã¢â¬Å"wife, two children, and a dog,Ã¢â¬ that many others had. Jerry was thrown in a world that he felt did not want him, and his human flaw of wanting to escape loneliness led to his tragic death. In Edward AlbeeÃ¢â¬â¢s play, The Zoo Story, all Jerry wanted was to be heard and understood, and in the end, after sharing his life story with a complete stranger, he got his final wish Ã¢â¬â death. The Zoo Story not only tells of the alienation of man in modern society, but also reflects the philosophy of twentieth century existentialism. How to cite A Visit to the Zoo, Essay examples
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Porter Five Forces Assist an Organisation in Their Strategic Planning Essay How does Porters Five Forces Model assist an organisation in their strategic planning? Before understanding Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ we must know Ã¢â¬Å"whatÃ¢â¬ Porters Five Forces model really is (Michael E. Porter, 2008). Company strive to secure a competitive advantage over their rivals, I mean who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be the best? Although the intensity of rivalry varies within each industry and these differences can be important in the development of strategy, but rather the five forces (Porter, 2008) being a strategy of any sort, it acts a framework in securing a strategy. The only time where strategy is irrelevant, would be when you have no competitors where ultimately the environment is a monopoly, or when you have a ton of money to throw around and waste. But having said that, it is not likely at all. Without framework, strategy will inevitably collapse, as they both come hand in hand. Thus a chain arises as the five forces (Porter, 2008) acts as a framework in assisting an organisation in their strategic planning, where strategic planning leads to a competitive advantage over their competitors which then leads to ultimate success of the company. We will write a custom essay sample on Porter Five Forces Assist an Organisation in Their Strategic Planning specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Porter Five Forces Assist an Organisation in Their Strategic Planning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Porter Five Forces Assist an Organisation in Their Strategic Planning specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Before proceeding to the question at hand on how Porters Five Forces can assist an organisation in their strategic planning, first we have to know two things, what are the Five Forces that Porter (2008) proposed, and ultimately what strategy really means? To ease this journey, letÃ¢â¬â¢s start with the Five Forces (Porter, 2008). Before any company enters a certain market, one must first analyse the competitive nature of the market, and this is exactly what the Five Forces (2008) aids to do, to provide a framework to determine the intensity of competition within an industry where three of the five competitive forces comes from an external sources, and the remainder coming from an internal sources. These external sources includes: Threat of potential entrants, threat of potential substitutes and rivalry of existing firms in the industry. Now these sources are external due to the fact that it is simply impossible to temper with. But what we can control, are the two internal sources: the bargaining power of suppliers, and the bargaining power of buyers. Being aware of the five forces can aid firms into identifying existence and the importance of each of the five forces, as well as the roles that each force plays into the success of the firms. The threat of potential entrants: Although it is possible for any company to enter and exit a market of their choice, each market has their own unique barriers to go in and out of. Therefore the essence of this force deals with the level of difficulty that a company can enter into an industry which will ultimately impact competition within the industry. Whenever a new company enters an industry, the competitive climate changes; it provides more alternatives to consumers, therefore reducing its attractiveness and the competition within the industry increases as each company is trying to come out on top. As each industry have their own unique characteristics it allows them to build a barrier from other industries protecting them from profitability while restraining additional rivals from entering the market. These restraints and characteristics that industries create are referred to as barriers of entry. Barriers of entry are a characteristic acquired uniquely to each industry. It attempts to reduce the rate of entry of new companies which maintains the level of profitability for all current industry competitors, where if new companies enters the industry, the profit is shared amongst the original and the newly developed companies in the industry, ultimately decreasing overall profits of each company, which isnÃ¢â¬â¢t ideal. Conversely when profitability of an industry is high, companies will attempt to come into the industry to get a piece of the action, which then will eventually result in reducing profits due to the fact that it is divided up into more quarters. Where thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an entry, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s an exit, barriers to exit limits the ability of a firm to leave the market, meanwhile rivalries can worsen. So when barriers for entry and exits are high, it means that companies have a higher potential to make more profit and the opposite occurs when barriers are low. The threat of substitutes: where it refers to substitute product as those that are available in other industry which can also fulfil the need and want of the consumers. It can affect competition in an industry by placing an invisible ceiling on prices which companies within the industry can charge, due to the fact that if the cost of substitute is low then the consumers will tend to purchase substitutes, therefore limiting the prices that a company can place on certain items to gain maximum profit. For example, lemonade can be substituted for a soft drink. Generally, competitive pressures arising from substitute products increase as the relative price of substitute products declines and as consumers switching costs decrease. The bargaining power of buyers is affected by the concentration and number of consumers, when buyer power is strong, they gain the power to choose between producers and ultimately equip themselves with bargaining power which then the producers will have to conform to in order to produce profit, under these conditions the buyer has the most influence in determining the price of products. Also when buyers have strong bargaining power in the exchange relationship, competition can be affected in several ways. Powerful buyers can bargain for lower prices, better product distribution, higher-quality products, as well as other factors that can create greater competition among companies. To minimise the power of buyers, companies can develop offers in which strong buyers cannot refuse, also, companies can choose to select buyers with less bargaining power. Similarly, the bargaining power of suppliers affects the intensity of competition in an industry, for a production industry that produces goods, raw materials are needed which creates a buyer and supplier relationship between the industry and companies which produces the raw materials. Suppliers may be able to determine prices especially when there are a large number of suppliers, limited substitute raw materials, or increased switching costs. The bargaining power of suppliers is important to industry competition because suppliers can also affect the quality of exchange relationships. Competition may become more intense as powerful suppliers raise prices, reduce services, or reduce the quality of goods or services. In order to minimise the power of suppliers, industry tend to build win-win relationships with suppliers where both parties benefits from it or arrange to use multiple suppliers so if one supplier chooses to increase their prices, the company doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t get affected as much. Competition is also affected by the rivalry among existing firms, which is usually considered as the most powerful of the five competitive forces. In most industries, business organizations are mutually dependent, industries that are concentrated versus fragmented; often display the highest level of rivalry. A competitive move by one company in pursuing an advantage over its rivals can be expected to have a noticeable effect on its competitors, and thus, may cause retaliation of other companies, for example, lowering prices, enhancing quality, adding features, providing services, extending warranties, and increasing advertising, placing themselves in a competitive advantage over the competitors. The nature of competition is often affected by a variety of factors, such as the size and number of competitors, demand changes for the industrys products, the specificity of assets within the industry, the presence of strong exit barriers, and the variety of competitors. These conditions will lead to a more challenging industry where companies compete in, leading to price wars, advertising battles, and the addition of new products. So after going through the five forces, letÃ¢â¬â¢s take a look at what strategic planning really means. If we are going to have a good strategy, we must separate strategy from goals and objectives and other issues that managers often think about. Now most management practitioners make the mistake in defining strategy, a strategy is what unique position that we will be able to achieve, what our advantage is going to be at the end of the day as we take these steps accumulatively over time, how weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to be unique? How weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to have an advantage? How weÃ¢â¬â¢re going to sustain the advantage over time? Schermerhorn, Davidson, Poole, Simon, Woods, Chau, 2011). The steps we take arenÃ¢â¬â¢t a strategy, but somehow numerous companies make the mistake of fixating themselves on a particular action that an organisation want to approach, which then inevitably becomes their strategy but that usually leads to the downfall of the company simply because they do not know why theyÃ¢â¬â¢re doing it and when they should stop doing it. As we all know, every industry is diff erent, therefore, there is no universal strategy that can apply to any business. But before proceeding, a company must understand their position and the industry that they are in and their circumstances in order to find a way of obtaining a competitive advantage over the competitors, where indefinitely delivering a unique value to the consumers which rivals cannot. As the five forces (Porter, 2001) suggests that being at a competitive advantage is the idealistic way of being on top, due to the fact that every industry has their own set of economics, the five forces (Porter, 2001) without a doubt acts as a framework to extract any necessary information needed to develop strategy to gain competitive advantage. The Five forces (Porter, 2001) help you home in on what is really causing profitability, or in fact what is causing the trends of the significance and change of the industry. This powerful framework can prevent an organisation from getting tricked or trapped into the latest trends like the technological sensation, and really allowing organisations to focus solely on the underlying fundamentals. This can be applied to any industry whether if its production or a service, high tech or low tech, emerging or developed industries (Porter, 2001). With the framework at hand, it acts as a guide or even a tick off criteria sheet into strategic planning, how should we begin? The strategy formulating process will be pretty straight forward from here after deeply understanding the five forces which Porter (2001) proposed. The first step should be the analysis of the industry that a company is trying to get into, looking at the environment to tick off all of the 5 boxes one by one, evaluating what the industry looks like, how itÃ¢â¬â¢s been changing over time, and what are the drivers of competition (Schermerhorn et al, 2011). After a careful analyse the company is then required to under the dynamics as to where the industry is going, how the buyers and substituteÃ¢â¬â¢s entry level are evolving, and lastly how to position the company to gain a good profit. These are all extracted from the framework proposed by Porter (2001), although competition is sometimes looked at too narrowly, with careful analysis of the five forces (Porter, 2001) will ultimately position the company in a competitive advantage. Where a competitive advantage allows an organisation to deal with the market and environmental forces much better than its competitors (Ramon, 2012), to achieve this goal, the company needs to be at its best and better than the competitors who are trying to achieve the same goal in the same industry. Rather than a goal, competitive advantage is a position that a company wants to be in, a goal is to make the competitive advantage sustainable in spite of all the mockery of rivals, although achieving and sustaining it is a challenging task, but it will set concrete roots for the company in years to come. The implementation of strategic planning tools serves a variety of purposes in companies, including the clear definition of an organizations purpose and mission, and the establishment of a standard base from which progress can be measured and future actions can be planned. I-O psychologist Ramon E, Henson (2012) and Robert E, Ployhart (2012) although having disagreements in some parts of their papers, they ultimately come forward in reinforcing the importance of competitive advantage suggesting that I-O and strategy has been Ã¢â¬Å"joined at hips for yearsÃ¢â¬ (Ramon, 2012), also suggesting hat I-O psychology should stray from the focus of individuals and start focusing more on the company as a whole as they have Ã¢â¬Å"much to offerÃ¢â¬ in the understanding of competitive advantage (Ployhart, 2012). Furthermore, the strategic planning tools should communicate those goals and objectives to the organisation as a whole rather than just the ones involved in the strategic planning process (OÃ¢â¬â¢Shannassy, 2003) to achieve a more efficient work flow. Throughout the centuries, countless strategic approaches has been formed and used and recycled, so why use PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces (2008)? For example, strategy as simple rules Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, ; Donald N. Sull, (2001). It illustrates the success story of Yahoo! , along with other successful companies coming from an unattractive market. Ã¢â¬Å"So how they did succeed? More generally, what are the sources of competitive advantage in high-velocity markets? What does strategy mean in the new economy? Ã¢â¬ (Eisenhardt et al, 2001, p. 108). The key is none-other than strategy as simple rules, it targets market confusion and rides the magic carpet to see where or what it will journey into. Although it is indeed called Ã¢â¬Å"simple rulesÃ¢â¬ , a rule still applies to it, as one Internet executive explained: Ã¢â¬Å"I have a thousand opportunities a day; strategy is deciding which 50 to do. Ã¢â¬ (Eisenhardt et al, 2001, p. 108). As it summarises and illustrates that simple rules is all about taking risks, its essence is to capture unanticipated opportunities for ultimate success. Although for companies like Yahoo! has gained huge success, simple rules (2001) cannot apply to any industry as the authors suggests (Eisenhardt et al, 2001). If the opportunity presents itself, for anyone to use simple rules (2001) as a stepping stone to success, without a doubt, one should take the opportunity, but an opportunity does not just come without any background knowledge of a particular industry, and this is where PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces (2008) comes into play, as it provides a framework for careful analysis of the industry, by analysing the industry will allow you to grab hold of the opportunities that might come about. Despite the fact that there are numerous of strategies to obtain competitive advantage, Porters Five Forces (2008) acts as a basis of all these trategies, as it is a tick-off criteria sheet which allows a company to understand their position before even implementing any sort of action. It is important as companies strives for ultimate profitability, thus the importance of a company securing a competitive advantage over their competitors is key, as even I-O psychologists supports the important of competitive advantage and that it should be a Ã¢â¬Å"department on its ownÃ¢â¬ (Ployhart, 2012). How to implement strategy and sustaining it is another question. Although Yahoo! nd some other companies has succeeded without the five forces (Porter, 2008), it is a dangerous and risky step, and for those who doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the resource to throw around, Porters Five Forces (2008) will not only act as a friend but mentor to the journey of success. Reference John R. Schermerhorn, Paul Davidson, David Poole, Alan Simon, Peter woods ; So Ling Chau (2011). Management 4th Asia-Pacific Edition. Queensland, Australia: John Wiley ; Sons Australia, Ltd. Kathleen M. Eisenhardt, ; Donald N. Sull, (2001). Strategy as Simple Rules. Harvard Business Review,79(1), 106-116. Porter E. Michael. THE FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE STRATEGY. Harvard Business Review, 00178012, Jan2008, Vol. 86, Issue 1. RAMON M. HENSON. Industrial-Organizational and Strategy Are Integrated in Practice! Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5(2012), pp82-86. Robert E. Ployhart. From Possible to Probable: The Psychology of Competitive Advantage. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5 (2012), 120Ã¢â¬â126. Tim OÃ¢â¬â¢Shannassy, (2003). Modern Strategic management: Balancing Strategic Thinking and Strategic Planning for Internal and External Stakeholders. Singapore Management Review, 25(1), 53-67.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Relation between Economics and Law The study of Law without the knowledge of other related social sciences i.e., Political theory, Sociology and Economics, etc, is incomplete. In any law curriculum the study of Economics and Law and their interaction is increasingly found necessary.As Law influence Economics, Economics also influence Law. As a matter of fact Economics forms the basis of the study of Law. Economics reflects the socio-economic ethos of the country in particular and world in general. It becomes out of date and misleading if the Economic ethos change. But it was proved to be wrong by Dalton. The organisation, industrial structure and performance have changed in the thirty years. E.g.: policy goals, policy instrument, Economic institutions.Economics derives its aims and objectives from the study of man and must derive at least a large part of its methodology from a study of Nature. Legal Economics is a vital part in understanding the interactional dimension of Law and Economics, i.e.,Economics Q & A, IVhow modern Economics can be used to illuminate a number of legal problems. It is not sufficiently realised that the economic analysis can aid our understanding of the Law and how economic factors limit and shape the operation of crime control and legal systems. Economic considerations have varied and widespread effects on the costs and benefits that prospective offenders may expect from crime, on decisions to litigate or to settle out to court, on the significance of legal costs the practical problems of legal administration and the provision of legal services. Law and legal policy help to determine the behaviour of the economy. There are extensive legal constraints on the allocation and the distribution of resources and on labour and housing markets.The social functions of Law are broadly classified into three:(1) Encouraging good behaviour and discouraging bad behaviour.(2) Facilitating the...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
How to Talk About Fractions in Chinese Know that you know your whole numbers in Chinese, you can talk about rational numbers in decimals, fractions, and percents with the addition of a few more vocabulary words. Of course, you can read and write numbers- like 4/3 or 3.75 or 15%- using the universal numerical system in Chinese-speaking regions. However, when it comes to reading those numbers out loud, youll need to know these new Mandarin Chinese terms. Parts of a Whole Fractions can be expressed either as parts of a whole (half, quarter, etc.) or as decimal fractions. In English, parts of a whole are stated as Ã¢â¬Å"XX parts of YY,Ã¢â¬ with XX being the parts of the whole and YY being the whole. An example of this is saying two parts of three, which also means two-thirds.Ã However, the phrase construction is the opposite in Chinese. Parts of a wholeÃ are stated as YY Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹ XX. The pinyin of Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹ is fÃân zhÃ «, and is written the same in both traditional and simplified Chinese.Ã Note that the number representing the whole comes at the beginning of the phrase.Ã One-half can be stated as either Ã¤ ¸â¬Ã¥ Å (yÃ « bn)Ã or using the phrase construction mentioned above:Ã Ã¤ ºÅ'Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¤ ¸â¬ (Ã ¨r fÃân zhÃ « yÃ «). There is no Chinese equivalent to the term one-quarter besidesÃ Ã¥âºâºÃ¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¤ ¸â¬ (s Ã ¬ fÃân zhÃ « yÃ «). Examples of Parts of a Whole three-quarterssÃ ¬ fÃân zhÃ « sÃ nÃ¥âºâºÃ¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¤ ¸â°eleven-sixteenthsshÃ liÃ ¹ fÃân zhÃ « shÃ yÃ «Ã¥ Ã¥â¦ Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¥ Ã¤ ¸â¬ Decimals Fractions can also be stated as decimals. The word for decimal point in Mandarin Chinese is written as Ã© »Å¾ in traditional form and Ã§â ¹ in simplified form. The character is pronounced as diÃÅ½n.Ã If a number begins with the decimal point, it can optionally be prefaced with Ã©âº ¶ (lÃ ng), which means zero. Each digit of the decimal fraction is stated individually just like a whole number. Examples of Decimal Fractions 1.3yÃ « diÃÅ½n sÃ nÃ¤ ¸â¬Ã© »Å¾Ã¤ ¸â° (trad)Ã¤ ¸â¬Ã§â ¹Ã¤ ¸â° (simp)0.5674ling diÃÅ½n wÃâ liÃ ¹ qÃ « sÃ ¬Ã©âº ¶Ã© »Å¾Ã¤ ºâÃ¥â¦ Ã¤ ¸Æ'Ã¥âºâº (trad)Ã©âº ¶Ã§â ¹Ã¤ ºâÃ¥â¦ Ã¤ ¸Æ'Ã¥âºâº (simp) Percents The same phrase construction used in expressing parts of a whole is also used when talking about percentages. Except for when talking about percents in Chinese, the whole is always 100. Thus, XX% will follow this template: Ã§â¢ ¾Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹ (bÃÅ½i fÃân zhÃ «) XX.Ã Examples of Percents 20%bÃÅ½i fÃân zhÃ « Ã ¨r shÃ Ã§â¢ ¾Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¤ ºÅ'Ã¥ 5%bÃÅ½i fÃân zhÃ « wÃâÃ§â¢ ¾Ã¥Ëâ Ã¤ ¹â¹Ã¤ ºâ
Monday, February 17, 2020
Case study 19 - Research Paper Example In a free market, lower priced products are likely to attract more customers compared to those with higher prices. In most cases, customers are very sensitive to prices and some organisations have capitalised on this where they lower the prices while at the same time trying to retain value. Mr Herrera is therefore reluctant to put higher price mark-ups as these would scare away his loyal customers which may result in loss of sales and ultimately loss of profits. However, his stance on the issue of pricing almost destroyed his business in that the revenue generated could not offset the cost of maintaining the buildings as well as high budgets on advertising. It can be noted that the total operational costs are slightly higher than the revenue generated though the customers still believe that he offers good quality on his project. Noble as it is to retain the loyal customers, it is also important to ensure that that the business is also able to sustain itself for long term benefits. Essentially, business is meant to generate profits which can cover all the operational costs. 2. The concepts of demand, price and profits are interrelated in various ways. Demand refers to the number of customers willing to purchase a product. Ã¢â¬Å"MarketingÃ¢â¬â¢s main thrust and skill is demand management, namely to influence the level, timing and composition of demand in pursuit of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s objective,Ã¢â¬ (Kotler 1999 p.46). The major objective of business is to satisfy the needs and wants of the customers profitably. However, in some instances, there may be over demand of goods and there is need for the marketers to try to reduce demand or change its timing. Demand affects the pricing of the product in different ways. There may be need to increase the price in order to offset the imbalance in revenue generated which may be recorded. An upsurge in demand where the price remains